Wednesday, April 30, 2008

China Oil Fields Clone Inverted Hammer Doji Candlestick Charting Pattern

Since the formation of the clone shooting star doji candlestick pattern on 24th April 2008 there has been 3 down bar candlesticks. Now a similar candlestick to that formed on 24th April 2008 has appeared signaling that a potential bottom may be forming. This candlestick looks like a clone inverted hammer doji candlestick charting pattern. Expect sideways trading the next few days until a clearer candlestick bar forms. Any upward move will probably be resisted by the 20 days EMA resistance line followed by the 50 days EMA resistance line. Expect strong resistance at the horizontal blue line 53 to 53.5 cents band. A breakout above this resistance band will propel price towards 58.5 cents and may challenge the gap resistance at 61.5 cents. Conversely, any weakening will meet immediate resistance at 41 to 40 cents support band. Support failure here may retest 37 cents support followed by 35 cents. If this support does not hold expect a challenge on 32 cents mid March 2008 low.

Cosco 30mins chart surrounded by trendlines

An early upthrust was blocked by the blue support turned resistance line. Price now under pressure by the black downtrend line. Breakdown below $3.14 to $3.13 may retest previous low at $3.05 . If this support does not hold a breakdown below $3.04 will see a retracement towards the red downside resistance turned support line. Any price rebound will meet immediate resistance at 20 EMA line followed by $3.20 to $3.18 resistance band . Clearing this resistance band will propel price towards 50 EMA resistance line and challenge the blue support turned resistance line for the third time .

Candlestick Charting History

The Japanese began using technical analysis to trade rice in the 17th century. While this early version of technical analysis was different from the US version initiated by Charles Dow around 1900, many of the guiding principles were very similar:

  • The "what" (price action) is more important than the "why" (news, earnings, and so on).
  • All known information is reflected in the price.
  • Buyers and sellers move markets based on expectations and emotions (fear and greed).
  • Markets fluctuate.
  • The actual price may not reflect the underlying value.

According to Steve Nison, candlestick charting first appeared sometime after 1850. Much of the credit for candlestick development and charting goes to a legendary rice trader named Homma from the town of Sakata. It is likely that his original ideas were modified and refined over many years of trading eventually resulting in the system of candlestick charting that we use today.

Option Contract specifications

Every financial option is a contract between the two counterparties with the terms of the option specified in a term sheet. Option contracts may be quite complicated; however, at minimum, they usually contain the following specifications:[3]

  • whether the option holder has the right to buy (a call option) or the right to sell (a put option)
  • the quantity and class of the underlying asset(s) (e.g. 100 shares of XYZ Co. B stock)
  • the strike price, also known as the exercise price, which is the price at which the underlying transaction will occur upon exercise
  • the expiration date, or expiry, which is the last date the option can be exercised
  • the settlement terms, for instance whether the writer must deliver the actual asset on exercise, or may simply tender the equivalent cash amount
  • the terms by which the option is quoted in the market, usually a multiplier such as 100, to convert the quoted price into actual premium amount


It's a Small World After All

At the nanoscale, objects are so small that we can't see them -- even with a light microscope. Nanoscientists have to use tools like scanning tunneling microscopes or atomic force microscopes to observe anything at the nanoscale. Scanning tunneling microscopes use a weak electric current to probe the scanned material. Atomic force microscopes scan surfaces with an incredibly fine tip. Both microscopes send data to a computer, which can assemble the information and project it graphically onto a monitor

[source: Encyclopædia Britannica].

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and Transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA

Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a small RNA chain of about 80 nucleotides that transfers a specific amino acid to a growing polypeptide chain at the ribosomal site of protein synthesis during translation. It has sites for amino acid attachment and an anticodon region for codon recognition that binds to a specific sequence on the messenger RNA chain through hydrogen bonding.[20]

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is the catalytic component of the ribosomes. Eukaryotic ribosomes contain four different rRNA molecules: 18S, 5.8S, 28S and 5S rRNA. Three of the rRNA molecules are synthesized in the nucleolus, and one is synthesized elsewhere. In the cytoplasm, ribosomal RNA and protein combine to form a nucleoprotein called a ribosome. The ribosome binds mRNA and carries out protein synthesis. Several ribosomes may be attached to a single mRNA at any time.[19] rRNA is extremely abundant and makes up 80% of the 10 mg/ml RNA found in a typical eukaryotic cytoplasm.[22]

Transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA) is found in many bacteria and plastids. It tags proteins encoded by mRNAs that lack stop codons for degradation and prevents the ribosome from stalling.

Satellite DNA

Satellite DNA consists of highly repetitive DNA, and is so called because repetitions of a short DNA sequence tend to produce a different frequency of the nucleotides adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine, and thus have a different density from bulk DNA - such that they form a second or 'satellite' band when genomic DNA is separated on a density gradient.

Types of satellite DNA

Satellite DNA, together with Minisatellite and Microsatellite DNA constitute the Tandem repeats.

Some types of satellite DNA are:

Type Size of repeat unit (bp) Location
α (alphoid DNA) 171 All chromosomes
β 68 Centromeres of chromosomes 1, 9, 13, 14, 15, 21, 22 and Y
Satellite 1 25-48 Centromeres and other regions in heterochromatin of most chromosomes
Satellite 2 5 Most chromosomes
Satellite 3 5 Most chromosomes


A repeated pattern can be between 1 base pair long (a mononucleotide repeat) to several thousand base pairs long, and the total size of a satellite DNA block can be several megabases without interruption. Most satellite DNA is localized to the telomeric or the centromeric region of the chromosome. The nucleotide sequence of the repeats is fairly well conserved across a species. However, variation in the length of the repeat is common. For example, minisatellite DNA is a short region (1-5kb) of 20-50 repeats. The difference in length of the minisatellites is the basis for DNA fingerprinting.


Satellite DNA, at least the microsatellite variety, is thought to have originated by slippage of a replicated chromosome against its template.


Microsatellites are often found in transcription units. Often the base pair repetition will disrupt proper protein synthesis, leading to diseases such as myotonic dystrophy.

Tuesday, April 29, 2008

Dow Jones Industrial Index Clone Shooting Star Doji Candlestick Pattern

Giant hanging man followed by tiny clone shooting star doji candlestick charting pattern. Expect a drop towards the green dotted line support at 12765. If this support hold does not hold the next support is at the mid Bolinger Band at 12640. Conversely, if the unexpected happens the index will propel towards the upper resistance line of the raising wedge and test the 13000 mark.

Cosco 30 mins chart Testing Major Support

Broke blue uptrend support line during early morning trading and attempted to rebound back above this support line but failed and continue to drop to intraday low of $3.05 . Next support is the red downtrend resistance turned support line. Breakdown below $3.04 to $3.00 support band will retest next support at $2.94 . Immediate resistance is the support band $3.15 to $3.13 followed by 20 EMA resistance line.

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Option (finance)

Options are financial instruments that convey the right, but not the obligation, to engage in a future transaction on some underlying security, or in a futures contract. In other words, the holder does not have to exercise this right, unlike a forward or future. For example, buying a call option provides the right to buy a specified quantity of a security at a set strike price at some time on or before expiration, while buying a put option provides the right to sell. Upon the option holder's choice to exercise the option, the party who sold, or wrote, the option must fulfill the terms of the contract.[1][2]

The theoretical value of an option can be determined by a variety of techniques. These models, which are developed by quantitative analysts, can also predict how the value of the option will change in the face of changing conditions. Hence, the risks associated with trading and owning options can be understood and managed with some degree of precision.

Exchange-traded options form an important class of options which have standardized contract features and trade on public exchanges, facilitating trading among independent parties. Over-the-counter options are traded between private parties, often well-capitalized institutions, that have negotiated separate trading and clearing arrangements with each other. Another important class of options, particularly in the U.S., are employee stock options, which are awarded by a company to their employees as a form of incentive compensation.

Other types of options exist in many financial contracts, for example real estate options are often used to assemble large parcels of land, and prepayment options are usually included in mortgage loans. However, many of the valuation and risk management principles apply across all financial options.

The World of Nanotechnology

Experts sometimes disagree about what constitutes the nanoscale, but in general, you can think of nanotechnology dealing with anything measuring between 1 and 100 nm. Larger than that is the microscale, and smaller than that is the atomic scale.

Silicon wafer
Sam Yesh/AFP/Getty Images
An engineer prepares a silicon wafer in an early stage of microchip production.
Nanotechnology is rapidly becoming an interdisciplinary field. Biologists, chemists, physicists and engineers are all involved in the study of substances at the nanoscale. Dr. Störmer hopes that the different disciplines develop a common language and communicate with one another [source: Störmer]. Only then, he says, can we effectively teach nanoscience since you can't understand the world of nanotechnology without a solid background in multiple sciences.

One of the exciting and challenging aspects of the nanoscale is the role that quantum mechanics plays in it. The rules of quantum mechanics are very different from classical physics, which means that the behavior of substances at the nanoscale can sometimes contradict common sense by behaving erratically. You can't walk up to a wall and immediately teleport to the other side of it, but at the nanoscale an electron can -- it's called electron tunneling. Substances that are insulators, meaning they can't carry an electric charge, in bulk form might become semiconductors when reduced to the nanoscale. Melting points can change due to an increase in surface area. Much of nanoscience requires that you forget what you know and start learning all over again.

So what does this all mean? Right now, it means that scientists are experimenting with substances at the nanoscale to learn about their properties and how we might be able to take advantage of them in various applications. Engineers are trying to use nano-size wires to create smaller, more powerful microprocessors. Doctors are searching for ways to use nanoparticles in medical applications. Still, we've got a long way to go before nanotechnology dominates the technology and medical markets.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) and Transfer RNA (tRNA)

Messenger RNA (mRNA) carries information about a protein sequence to the ribosomes, the protein synthesis factories in the cell. It is coded so that every three nucleotides (a codon) correspond to one amino acid. In eukaryotic cells, once precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA) has been transcribed from DNA, it is processed to mature mRNA. This removes its introns—non-coding sections of the pre-mRNA. The mRNA is then exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where it is bound to ribosomes and translated into its corresponding protein form with the help of tRNA. In prokaryotic cells, which do not have nucleus and cytoplasm compartments, mRNA can bind to ribosomes while it is being transcribed from DNA. After a certain amount of time the message degrades into its component nucleotides with the assistance of ribonucleases.

Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a small RNA chain of about 80 nucleotides that transfers a specific amino acid to a growing polypeptide chain at the ribosomal site of protein synthesis during translation. It has sites for amino acid attachment and an anticodon region for codon recognition that binds to a specific sequence on the messenger RNA chain through hydrogen bonding.

Functions for Some Subsets of Junk DNA

  • A 2002 study from the University of Michigan showed that segments of junk DNA called LINE-1 elements, once thought to be "leftovers from the distant evolutionary past" now "deserve more respect" because they are capable of repairing broken strands of DNA. [18]
  • A 2003 study from Tel Aviv University found crucial uses for "junk" sequences in human DNA. [3]
  • A 2004 study from the Cell Press suggests that "more than one third of the mouse and human genomes, previously thought to be non-functional, may play some role in the regulation of gene expression and promotion of genetic diversity." [4]
  • An article from BioEd Online details DNA which appears crucial although no function has yet been discovered. [5]
  • A 2005 study from the National Institutes of Health found that social behavior in rodents (and, possibly humans [6]) was affected by portions of the genetic code once thought to be "junk." [7]
  • A 2005 study from University of California-San Diego suggested that junk DNA is "critically important to an organism’s evolutionary survival." [8]
  • Findings from Purdue University in 2005 stated that "many DNA sequences previously believed to have no function actually may play specialized roles in cell behavior." [9]
  • A 2006 study by the McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine (Johns Hopkins) stated that "Junk DNA may not be so junky after all." [10]
  • Researchers at the University of Illinois Society for Experimental Biology found an antifreeze-protein gene in a species of fish which "evolved" from junk DNA. [11]
  • A mathematical analysis of the genetic code by IBM identified patterns that suggested junk DNA had an important role after all. [12]
  • In 2006, University of Iowa researchers documented segments of RNA (previously considered "junk") that regulated protein production, and could generate microRNAs. [13]
A 2007 study from Stanford University School of Medicine found that "Large swaths of garbled human DNA once dismissed as junk appear to contain some valuable sections."

Monday, April 28, 2008

Yangzijiang Ship Still Docked At Port

Tested both the upper uptrend channel resistance line and the immediate support at 50 days EMA. Closed at the same price as Friday closing. The Volume Distribution Chart below shows that there was more selling than buying by the Big Boys. With the decline in volume in the lastl 2 days an imminent price fall seems inevitable unless buying volume returns.

Cosco Testing Previous Downtrend Resistance Turned Support Line

Another down candlestick bar today pulling price lower and lower. Next critical support is the red bold downtrend resistance turned support line. If price does not rebounce from this support line next support will be the $3.18 to $3.15 support band. Support failure here will see a retest of $3.00 support. Immediate resistance now is $3.34 .

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How New is Nanotechnology?

Nanotechnology deals with materials and machines on an incredibly tiny scale -- less than one billionth of a meter. To learn more about nanotechnology

In 1959, physicist and future Nobel prize winner Richard Feynman gave a lecture to the American Physical Society called "There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom." The focus of his speech was about the field of miniaturization and how he believed man would create increasingly smaller, powerful devices.

In 1986, K. Eric Drexler wrote "Engines of Creation" and introduced the term nanotechnology. Scientific research really expanded over the last decade. Inventors and corporations aren't far behind -- today, more than 13,000 patents registered with the U.S. Patent Office have the word "nano" in them [source: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office].

Types of RNA


Structure of a hammerhead ribozyme, a ribozyme that cuts RNA
Structure of a hammerhead ribozyme, a ribozyme that cuts RNA

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is the RNA that carries information from DNA to the ribosome, the sites of protein synthesis (translation) in the cell. The coding sequence of the mRNA determines the amino acid sequence in the protein that is produced.[19] Many RNAs do not code for protein however. These non-coding RNAs can be encoded by their own genes (RNA genes), but can also derive from mRNA introns.[20] The most prominent examples of non-coding RNAs are transfer RNA (tRNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA), both of which are involved in the process of translation.[13] There are also non-coding RNAs involved in gene regulation, RNA processing and other roles. Certain RNAs are able to catalyse chemical reactions such as cutting and ligating other RNA molecules,[21] and the catalysis of peptide bond formation in the ribosome;[15] these are known as ribozymes.

Evolutionary conservation of "junk" DNA

Comparative genomics is a promising direction in studying the function of junk DNA. Biologically functional sequences, as the theory goes, tend to undergo mutation at a slower rate than nonfunctional sequence, since mutations in these sequences are likely to be selected against. For example, the coding sequence of a human protein-coding gene is typically about 80% identical to its mouse ortholog, while their genomes as a whole are much more widely diverged. Analyzing the patterns of conservation between the genomes of different species can suggest which sequences are functional, or at least which functional sequences are shared by those species. Functional elements stand out in such analyses as having diverged less than the surrounding sequence.

Comparative studies of several mammalian genomes suggest that approximately 5% of the human genome has evolved under purifying selection[14] since the divergence of the mammals. Since known functional sequence comprises less than 2% of the human genome, it appears that there may be more functional "junk" DNA in the human genome than there is known functional sequence.

A surprising recent finding was the discovery of nearly 500 ultraconserved elements[15], which are shared at extraordinarily high fidelity among the available vertebrate genomes, in what had previously been designated as junk DNA. The function of these sequences is currently under intense scrutiny, and there are preliminary indications[15][16][17] that some may play a regulatory role in vertebrate development from embryo to adult.

It must be noted that all present results concerning evolutionarily conserved human "junk" DNA are expressed in highly preliminary, probabilistic terms, since only a handful of related genomes are available. As more vertebrate, and especially mammalian, genomes are sequenced, scientists will develop a clearer picture of this important class of sequence. However, it is always possible, though highly unlikely, that there are significant quantities of functional human DNA that are not shared among these species, and which would thus not be revealed by these studies. Conversely there are even some questions about basic hypothesis that conserved sequences all must function [13].

On a theoretical note, it is often observed that the presence of high proportions of truly nonfunctional "junk" DNA would seem to defy evolutionary logic. Replication of such a large amount of useless information each time a cell divides would waste energy. Organisms with less nonfunctional DNA would thus enjoy a selective advantage, and over an evolutionary time scale, nonfunctional DNA would tend to be eliminated. If one assumes that most junk DNA is indeed nonfunctional, then there are several hypotheses for why it has not been eliminated by evolution: (1) The energy required to replicate even large amounts of nonfunctional DNA is in fact relatively insignificant on the cellular or organismal scale, so no selective pressure results (selection coefficients less than one over the population size are effectively neutral); (2) The aforementioned possible advantage of having extra DNA as a reservoir of potentially useful sequences and similarly as a protective buffer against harmful genetic damage or mutations; and (3) Retrotransposon insertions of nonfunctional sequence occurring faster than evolution can eliminate it. These are all hypotheses for which the time scales involved in evolution may make it difficult for humans to investigate rigorously.

Sunday, April 27, 2008

China Oil Fields Shooting Stars Triangles Chart Formation

First shooting star on 23rd April 2008 attempted to breakout from the red symmetrical triangle but failed. Second shooting star on 24th April 2008 managed to clear the red symmetrical triangle but was trapped by the ascending triangle blue horizontal resistance line. After the formation of the double shooting stars finally a down bar appeared as confirmation. This down bar candlestick is resting on the 50 days EMA support. Next support is the 20 days EMA support line. If this support does not hold the next support is the 45 to 44 cents support band. If this support can be defended the ascending triangle will be transformed into a rectangle trading range. However support failure here will test next support at 41 to 40 cents support band. Breakdown from this support band may result in a retest of mid March 2008 low at 32 cents. Conversely a rebounce at the ascending triangle uptrend line may propel price back towards the blue horizontal resistance line. Breakout above this resistance line will retest next resistance at 58.5 to 57.5 resistance band.

Yangzijiang Doji Candlestick Charting Pattern

The doji is a warning sign of a pending reversal. The lack of a real body conveys a sense of indecision between buyers and sellers and the balance of power may be shifting. The open and close are almost equal. The length of the upper and lower shadows can vary and the resulting candlestick looks like a cross, inverted cross or plus sign. The next candlestick bar may decide the new direction. Current location near the upper uptrend channel resistance line suggests there may be a pullback towards 50 days EMA support line followed by $1.05 support level . If this support does not hold expect further retracement to the 20 days EMA support and 97.5 to 96.5 cents support band. Breaking the lower uptrend channel support line will invalidate the current uptrend channel. Conversely a move above the top of the doji may be resisted by the upper uptrend channel resistance line . A breakout above this resistance will propel price to next resistance at $1.16 followed by $1.20 .

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How Nanotechnology Works

There's an unprecedented multidisciplinary convergence of scientists dedicated to the study of a world so small, we can't see it -- even with a light microscope. That world is the field of nanotechnology, the realm of atoms and nanostructures. Nanotechnology is so new, no one is really sure what will come of it. Even so, predictions range from the ability to reproduce things like diamonds and food to the world being devoured by self-replicating nanorobots.

Units of measure

In order to understand the unusual world of nanotechnology, we need to get an idea of the units of measure involved. A centimeter is one-hundredth of a meter, a millimeter is one-thousandth of a meter, and a micrometer is one-millionth of a meter, but all of these are still huge compared to the nanoscale. A nanometer (nm) is one-billionth of a meter, smaller than the wavelength of visible light and a hundred-thousandth the width of a human hair [source: Berkeley Lab].

As small as a nanometer is, it's still large compared to the atomic scale. An atom has a diameter of about 0.1 nm. An atom's nucleus is much smaller -- about 0.00001 nm. Atoms are the building blocks for all matter in our universe. You and everything around you are made of atoms. Nature has perfected the science of manufacturing matter molecularly. For instance, our bodies are assembled in a specific manner from millions of living cells. Cells are nature's nanomachines. At the atomic scale, elements are at their most basic level. On the nanoscale, we can potentially put these atoms together to make almost anything.

In a lecture called "Small Wonders:The World of Nanoscience," Nobel Prize winner Dr. Horst Störmer said that the nanoscale is more interesting than the atomic scale because the nanoscale is the first point where we can assemble something -- it's not until we start putting atoms together that we can make anything useful.

RNA Synthesis

Synthesis of RNA is usually catalyzed by an enzyme—RNA polymerase—using DNA as a template, a process known as transcription. Initiation of transcription begins with the binding of the enzyme to a promoter sequence in the DNA (usually found "upstream" of a gene). The DNA double helix is unwound by the helicase activity of the enzyme. The enzyme then progresses along the template strand in the 3’ to 5’ direction, synthesizing a complementary RNA molecule with elongation occurring in the 5’ to 3’ direction. The DNA sequence also dictates where termination of RNA synthesis will occur.[16]

RNAs are often modified by enzymes after transcription. For example, a poly(A) tail and a 5' cap are added to eukaryotic pre-mRNA.

There are also a number of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases as well that use RNA as their template for synthesis of a new strand of RNA. For instance, a number of RNA viruses (such as poliovirus) use this type of enzyme to replicate their genetic material.[17] Also, it is known that RNA-dependent RNA polymerases are required for the RNA interference pathway in many organisms.

Junk DNA Hypotheses of origin and function

There are some hypotheses, none conclusively established, from the most academic to the less expected, for how junk DNA arose and why it persists in the genome:

  • These chromosomal regions could be composed of the now-defunct remains of ancient genes, known as pseudogenes, which were once functional copies of genes but have since lost their protein-coding ability (and, presumably, their biological function). After non-functionalization, pseudogenes are free to acquire genetic noise in the form of random mutations.
  • 8% of human junk DNA has been shown to be formed by retrotransposons of Human Endogenous Retroviruses (HERVs)[5], although as much as 25% is recognisably formed of retrotransposons[6]. This is a lower limit on how much of the genome is retrotransposons because older remains might not be recognizable having accumulated too much mutation. New research suggests that genome size variation in at least two kinds of plants is mostly because of retrotransposons.[7]
  • In 1997, Steven Sparks proposed that "The end purpose of this "excess DNA" must be to reduce the probability of transcribable genes being cut by chromosomal crossover. Gametes can survive only when their important, transcribed genes are saved from meiotic cutting by being surrounded with "buffer DNA"."[8]
  • Junk DNA might provide a reservoir of sequences from which potentially advantageous new genes can emerge. In this way, it may be an important genetic basis for evolution[9].
  • Some junk DNA could simply be spacer material that allows enzyme complexes to form around functional elements more easily. In this way, the junk DNA could serve an important function even though the actual sequence information it contains is irrelevant.
  • Some portions of junk DNA could serve presently unknown regulatory functions, controlling the expression of certain genes, the development of an organism from embryo to adult[10], and/or development of certain organs/organelles[11].
  • More and more scientists believe that in fact regulatory layer(s) in the "junk DNA", such as through non-coding RNAs, altogether contain genetic programming at least on par with, and possibly much more important than protein coding genes.[12] But still how much of the 98% would be involved in such activity is unknown.
  • Junk DNA may have no function. For example, recent experiments removed 1% of the mouse genome and were unable to detect any effect on the phenotype[13]. This result suggests that the DNA is, in fact, non-functional. However, it remains a possibility that there is some function that the experiments performed on the mice were merely insufficient to detect.

Saturday, April 26, 2008

Dow Jones Industrial Index Weekly Chart Hanging Man Candlestick Charting Pattern

Weekly chart has hangning man candlestick chart pattern near the intersection of 2 resistance lines. The weekly black downtrend resistance line and the red upper channel resistance line may be tested next week. Breakout above these 2 resistances will propel Dow Jones Index to next resistance at 13270. However, if this weekly hanging man is confirmed by a long down bar expect a drop towards mid Bolinger Band support at 12544 . If this support does not hold a further retracement towards the blue mid channel support line is likely.

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Genentech Leading the Biotechnology Industry

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RNA Comparison with DNA

RNA and DNA differ in three main ways. First, unlike DNA which is double-stranded, RNA is a single-stranded molecule in most of its biological roles and has a much shorter chain of nucleotides. Second, while DNA contains deoxyribose, RNA contains ribose, (there is no hydroxyl group attached to the pentose ring in the 2' position in DNA). These hydroxyl groups make RNA less stable than DNA because it is more prone to hydrolysis. Third, the complementary nucleotide to adenine is not thymine, as it is in DNA, but rather uracil, which is an unmethylated form of thymine.[13]

The 50S ribosomal subunit. RNA is in orange, protein in blue. The active site  is in the middle (red).
The 50S ribosomal subunit. RNA is in orange, protein in blue. The active site is in the middle (red).

Like DNA, most biologically active RNAs including tRNA, rRNA, snRNAs and other, non-coding, RNAs are extensively base paired to form double stranded helices. Structural analysis of these RNAs have revealed that they are highly structured. Unlike DNA, this structure is not long double-stranded helices but rather collections of short helices packed together into structures akin to proteins. In this fashion, RNAs can achieve chemical catalysis, like enzymes.[14] For instance, determination of the structure of the ribosome—an enzyme that catalyzes peptide bond formation—revealed that its active site is composed entirely of RNA.

What are the potential uses of human stem cells and the obstacles that must be overcome before these potential uses will be realized?

There are many ways in which human stem cells can be used in basic research and in clinical research. However, there are many technical hurdles between the promise of stem cells and the realization of these uses, which will only be overcome by continued intensive stem cell research.

Studies of human embryonic stem cells may yield information about the complex events that occur during human development. A primary goal of this work is to identify how undifferentiated stem cells become differentiated. Scientists know that turning genes on and off is central to this process. Some of the most serious medical conditions, such as cancer and birth defects, are due to abnormal cell division and differentiation. A better understanding of the genetic and molecular controls of these processes may yield information about how such diseases arise and suggest new strategies for therapy. A significant hurdle to this use and most uses of stem cells is that scientists do not yet fully understand the signals that turn specific genes on and off to influence the differentiation of the stem cell.

Human stem cells could also be used to test new drugs. For example, new medications could be tested for safety on differentiated cells generated from human pluripotent cell lines. Other kinds of cell lines are already used in this way. Cancer cell lines, for example, are used to screen potential anti-tumor drugs. But, the availability of pluripotent stem cells would allow drug testing in a wider range of cell types. However, to screen drugs effectively, the conditions must be identical when comparing different drugs. Therefore, scientists will have to be able to precisely control the differentiation of stem cells into the specific cell type on which drugs will be tested. Current knowledge of the signals controlling differentiation fall well short of being able to mimic these conditions precisely to consistently have identical differentiated cells for each drug being tested.

Perhaps the most important potential application of human stem cells is the generation of cells and tissues that could be used for cell-based therapies. Today, donated organs and tissues are often used to replace ailing or destroyed tissue, but the need for transplantable tissues and organs far outweighs the available supply. Stem cells, directed to differentiate into specific cell types, offer the possibility of a renewable source of replacement cells and tissues to treat diseases including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, spinal cord injury, stroke, burns, heart disease, diabetes, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis.

Graphic depicting heart muscle repair with adult stem cells

For example, it may become possible to generate healthy heart muscle cells in the laboratory and then transplant those cells into patients with chronic heart disease. Preliminary research in mice and other animals indicates that bone marrow stem cells, transplanted into a damaged heart, can generate heart muscle cells and successfully repopulate the heart tissue. Other recent studies in cell culture systems indicate that it may be possible to direct the differentiation of embryonic stem cells or adult bone marrow cells into heart muscle cells (Figure 4).

In people who suffer from type I diabetes, the cells of the pancreas that normally produce insulin are destroyed by the patient's own immune system. New studies indicate that it may be possible to direct the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells in cell culture to form insulin-producing cells that eventually could be used in transplantation therapy for diabetics.

To realize the promise of novel cell-based therapies for such pervasive and debilitating diseases, scientists must be able to easily and reproducibly manipulate stem cells so that they possess the necessary characteristics for successful differentiation, transplantation and engraftment. The following is a list of steps in successful cell-based treatments that scientists will have to learn to precisely control to bring such treatments to the clinic. To be useful for transplant purposes, stem cells must be reproducibly made to:

  • Proliferate extensively and generate sufficient quantities of tissue.
  • Differentiate into the desired cell type(s).
  • Survive in the recipient after transplant.
  • Integrate into the surrounding tissue after transplant.
  • Function appropriately for the duration of the recipient's life.
  • Avoid harming the recipient in any way.

Also, to avoid the problem of immune rejection, scientists are experimenting with different research strategies to generate tissues that will not be rejected.

To summarize, the promise of stem cell therapies is an exciting one, but significant technical hurdles remain that will only be overcome through years of intensive research.

Junk DNA

In molecular biology, "junk" DNA is a provisional label for the portions of the DNA sequence of a chromosome or a genome for which no function has yet been identified. Scientists fully expect to find functions for some, but definitely not all, of this provisionally classified collection. About 80-90% of the human genome has been designated as "junk", including most sequences within introns and most intergenic DNA. While much of this sequence may be an evolutionary artifact that serves no present-day purpose, some is believed to function in ways that are not currently understood. Moreover, the conservation of some junk DNA over many millions of years of evolution may imply an essential function. Some consider the "junk" label as something of a misnomer, but others consider it apposite as junk is stored away for possible new uses, rather than thrown out; others prefer the term "noncoding DNA" (although junk DNA often includes transposons that encode proteins with no clear value to their host genome). However it now appears that, although protein-coding DNA makes up barely 2% of the human genome, about 80% of the bases in the genome may be transcribed, [1]but transcription by itself does not necessarily imply function.

Broadly, the science of functional genomics has developed widely accepted techniques to characterize protein-coding genes, RNA genes, and regulatory regions. In the genomes of most plants and animals, however, these together constitute only a small percentage of genomic DNA (less than 2% in the case of humans). The function, if any, of the remainder remains under investigation. Most of it can be identified as repetitive elements that have no known biological function for their host (although they are useful to geneticists for analyzing lineage and phylogeny). Still, a large amount of sequence in these genomes falls under no existing classification other than "junk".

Overall genome size, and by extension the amount of junk DNA, appears to have little relationship to organism complexity: the genome of the unicellular Amoeba dubia has been reported to contain more than 200 times the amount of DNA in humans"[2] [3].

The pufferfish Takifugu rubripes genome is only about one tenth the size of the human genome, yet seems to have a comparable number of genes. Most of the difference appears to lie in what is now known only as junk DNA. This puzzle is known as the C-value enigma or, more conventionally, the C-value paradox

Friday, April 25, 2008

Dow Jones Industrial Index Hanging Man Candlestick Charting Pattern Invalidated

With the latest strong candlestick formation the hanging man candlestick chart pattern formed earlier has lost its bearish power. Expect closing above black downtrend line today. Trading will probably still be restricted within the blue raising wedge lines. If the unexpected happens a drop towards mid Bolinger Band support at 12575 will be imminent.

Cosco 15 mins chart testing intraday low

Testing of intraday low at $3.41 is imminent. Any retracement will meet resistance at the green downtrend line, 20 EMA and 50 EMA resistance lines. Breakdown below intraday low will retest 200 EMA support and gap support at $3.34

RNA Structure

Each nucleotide in RNA contains a ribose sugar, with carbons numbered 1' through 5'. A base is attached to the 1' position, generally adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G) or uracil (U). Adenine and guanine are purines, cytosine and uracil are pyrimidines. A phosphate group is attached to the 3' position of one ribose and the 5' position of the next. The phosphate groups have a negative charge each at physiological pH, making RNA a charged molecule (polyanion). The bases may form hydrogen bonds between cytosine and guanine, between adenine and uracil and between guanine and uracil.[1] However other interactions are possible, such as a group of adenine bases binding to each other in a bulge,[2] or the GNRA tetraloop that has a guanine–adenine base-pair.[1]

Chemical structure of RNA
Chemical structure of RNA

An important structural feature of RNA that distinguishes it from DNA is the presence of a hydroxyl group at the 2' position of the ribose sugar. The presence of this functional group causes the helix to adopt the A-form geometry rather than the B-form most commonly observed in DNA.[3] This results in a very deep and narrow major groove and a shallow and wide minor groove.[4] A second consequence of the presence of the 2'-hydroxyl group is that in conformationally flexible regions of an RNA molecule (that is, not involved in formation of a double helix), it can chemically attack the adjacent phosphodiester bond to cleave the backbone.[5]

RNA is transcribed with only four bases (adenine, cytosine, guanine and uracil),[6] but there are numerous modified bases and sugars in mature RNAs. Pseudouridine (Ψ), in which the linkage between uracil and ribose is changed from a C–N bond to a C–C bond, and ribothymidine (T), are found in various places (most notably in the TΨC loop of tRNA).[7] Another notable modified base is hypoxanthine, a deaminated adenine base whose nucleoside is called inosine. Inosine plays a key role in the wobble hypothesis of the genetic code.[8] There are nearly 100 other naturally occurring modified nucleosides,[9] of which pseudouridine and nucleosides with 2'-O-methylribose are the most common.[10] The specific roles of many of these modifications in RNA are not fully understood. However, it is notable that in ribosomal RNA, many of the post-transcriptional modifications occur in highly functional regions, such as the peptidyl transferase center and the subunit interface, implying that they are important for normal function.[11]

Secondary structure of a telomerase RNA
Secondary structure of a telomerase RNA

The functional form of single stranded RNA molecules, just like proteins, frequently requires a specific tertiary structure. The scaffold for this structure is provided by secondary structural elements which are hydrogen bonds within the molecule. This leads to several recognizable "domains" of secondary structure like hairpin loops, bulges and internal loops.[12] There has been a significant amount of research directed at the RNA structure prediction problem.

Watson-Crick base pairs in a siRNA (hydrogen atoms are not shown)
Watson-Crick base pairs in a siRNA (hydrogen atoms are not shown)

What are the similarities and differences between embryonic and adult stem cells?

Human embryonic and adult stem cells each have advantages and disadvantages regarding potential use for cell-based regenerative therapies. Of course, adult and embryonic stem cells differ in the number and type of differentiated cells types they can become. Embryonic stem cells can become all cell types of the body because they are pluripotent. Adult stem cells are generally limited to differentiating into different cell types of their tissue of origin. However, some evidence suggests that adult stem cell plasticity may exist, increasing the number of cell types a given adult stem cell can become.

Large numbers of embryonic stem cells can be relatively easily grown in culture, while adult stem cells are rare in mature tissues and methods for expanding their numbers in cell culture have not yet been worked out. This is an important distinction, as large numbers of cells are needed for stem cell replacement therapies.

A potential advantage of using stem cells from an adult is that the patient's own cells could be expanded in culture and then reintroduced into the patient. The use of the patient's own adult stem cells would mean that the cells would not be rejected by the immune system. This represents a significant advantage as immune rejection is a difficult problem that can only be circumvented with immunosuppressive drugs.

Embryonic stem cells from a donor introduced into a patient could cause transplant rejection. However, whether the recipient would reject donor embryonic stem cells has not been determined in human experiments.

Thursday, April 24, 2008

Dow Jones Industrial Index Raising Wedge Chart Pattern

Black downtrend resistance line still intact. Since 18th April 2008 the bulls have not been able to clear this downtrend line. Price will probably move within the raising wedge as shown in blue bold lines . Breakdown below lower raising wedge support will see retest of previous trough at 12269.80 .

Cosco Testing 50 Days EMA

Another milestone target being tested now. Testing 50 days EMA resistance line in progress. Clearing this resistance will propel price towards next resistance at $3.74 . The gap resistance at $4.02 is getting nearer. Immediate support is gap support at $3.53 .

Sony HDD HandyCam DCR-SR60E

Model: DCR-SR60E
Sony HDD Mega Pixel Hard Disk Handycam

Weight and Dimensions:
350.0 gm
69.0 x 71.0 x 117.0 mm (W x H x D)
A large 30GB Hard Disk Drive and compact design for movie-making on the go

Featuring a large 30GB built-in Hard Disk Drive for 20 hours of recording, a powerful 1 Mega Pixel CCD and a high-quality Carl Zeiss Vario-Tessar Lens, the Handycam DCR-SR60E offers beautiful images with outstanding colour, excellent contrast and superb clarity across the entire field of view. The Mega Pixel Engine offers high resolution and lowered noise levels, with Variable Bit Rate (VBR) providing an even further reduction in noise during scenes with fast movement.

An integrated 3G Sensor detects any sudden drops or jolts, automatically safeguarding the HDD from memory damage and data loss. And footage can be easily viewed on the 2.7” Wide Hybrid LCD Display in full 16:9 format, even under bright sunlight, with Video Index and Date Index functions providing easy access to scenes. Then copy video to DVD with the convenient One Touch DVD Burn function, use the supplied Handycam Station to connect via AV or USB to your PC, printer or TV, or transfer files automatically using the Easy PC Back-Up function and bundled ImageMixer software

  • 30GB Capacity
  • 1 Mega Pixel CCD
  • 12X Optical, 800X Digital Zoom
  • Carl Zeiss Vario-Tessar Lens
  • 2.7" High Quality Wide Hybrid LCD Screen
  • Auto Lens Cover
  • Dolby Digital Stereo Creator
  • One Touch DVD Burn
  • P series battery, STAMINA 5hrs
  • Wide Select Button
  • USB2.0 High-Speed
  • Super Nightshot Plus
  • Super Steadyshot Image Stabilizer
  • Easy Handycam
Supplied Accessories
  • InfoLITHIUM P series battery (NP-FP50)
  • AC adapter
  • AV cable
  • USB cable
  • Handycam Station
  • PC Software - ImageMixer
  • Remote